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28
Nov

ALERTA: ¿TERMOELÉCTRICAS RURALES?

termoeléctrica

En el municipio de Luján, se vive una situación desconcertante en relación a la instalación de una central termoeléctrica. Los vecinos han logrado suspender, de manera transitoria el avance de la obra y buscan una respuesta respecto a la “re-zonificación” del lugar y la prohibición que rige allí para un proyecto de estas características. Problemática repetida en el ámbito de la provincia de Buenos Aires.

En el último semestre del corriente año, vecinos de distintas localidades del conurbano bonaerense se han manifestado preocupados por la instalación de diversas centrales termoeléctricas.

Ahora bien, ¿Qué es una central térmica convencional?

Las centrales termoeléctricas transforman la energía primaria contenida potencialmente en los recursos disponibles en la naturaleza que no pueden ser utilizados directamente para el consumo humano, en electricidad (fuente de energía secundaria).

La electricidad está contenida en el vapor a presión que se consigue de la quema de carbón, gas, fueloil o gasoil (fuentes de energía primaria).

La central termoeléctrica de Luján sobre la que hemos recibido denuncia de los vecinos, está localizada a menos de trescientos metros de una de las escuelas más concurridas de la zona y muy próxima también a una escuela rural. En ese sentido, las normas urbanísticas catalogaban a la zona del proyecto como “Zona Rural”, categoría prohibida para la instalación de una central de las carácterísticas previstas.

Para poder desarrollar la instalación de dicha planta, el Concejo Deliberante del municipio dictó una ordenanza desafectando del uso rural al terreno para transformarlo en una “zona industrial”. Ante las manifestaciones de los vecinos, el intendente se comprometió al dictado de nueva ordenanza derogando dicha modificación al código urbanístico.

Cabe recordar que se encuentra vigente una Ordenanza Municipal dictada en 2013, que prohíbe la instalación de industrias “categoría 3” en el partido de Luján, designación que otorgó OPDS (Organismo Provincial para el Desarrollo Sostenible) al proyecto de Araucaria Company.

Desde FARN queremos manifestar la preocupación que generan los proyectos en estado de finalización y habilitación comercial prevista conforme a lo informado por CAMMESA a una de nuestras consultas. (http://farn.org.ar/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/CAMESSA-Centrales-Termoeléctricas-PI-26-10.pdf).

Principales impactos de las Centrales Termoeléctricas: contaminación atmosférica y ausencia de tratamientos de disposición final.

Además de la producción de cenizas, durante la combustión, todos los combustibles fósiles liberan dióxido de carbono que es el responsable de cualquier efecto causado por los “gases de invernadero”, entre los que también se incluyen el metano y el óxido nitroso. El efecto de estos sobre los gases propios de la atmósfera puede dar lugar a un cambio de temperatura.

Asimismo, en una de las etapas que componen el proceso de ingeniería, el calor residual del vapor “muerto” se transfiere a otro medio, generalmente un río o un embalse cercano, la mayoría de las veces sin tratamiento previo que lo adecue a las temperaturas normales del medio donde se va a depositar, afectando finalmente dichos ecosistemas.

En el caso de Luján, además de los problemas de contaminación atmosférica por emanaciones de gases al ambiente, informó Melisa Estrella –vecina y geógrafa de la Universidad de Lujan- existe un alto riesgo de contaminación de las napas de agua inferiores que se utilizan para consumo. La elevada demanda de agua de la central, en suma con la requerida por otras industrias (a destacar una cervecera que se encuentra en las proximidades de la planta), generaría una enorme presión sobre el acuífero con altas probabilidades de generar un “cono de depresión” debido a la extracción de tanta agua desde un mismo punto.

Nota a Melisa Estrella en radio Ciudad de Lujan

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