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20
Mar

El ambiente en los últimos 5 años, por María Eugenia Di Paola

Los últimos cinco años han mostrado que la sustentabilidad y el ambiente no son todavía prioridad ni en nuestro país ni en el mundo. Río + 20 en el 2012, en línea con lo ocurrido en la conferencia de Cambio Climático en Copenhague en 2009, nos ha dejado un sabor amargo por la falta de decisiones contundentes y oportunas a nivel global. Por otro lado, en laRepública Argentina sucede algo que también se experimenta en varios países de la región, el extractivismo crece de la mano de la primarización de la economía y esto sigue actuando en detrimento de políticas públicas y privadas sustentables.

Sin embargo, Río+20 ha demostrado también que existen procesos locales y regionales que significan avances y que merecen un dimensionamiento en el plano global. Esto no reemplaza la ausencia y la necesidad de mayores decisiones en el ámbito internacional, pero genera una importante base para seguir trabajando por políticas públicas sustentables. En este sentido, temas ambientales de envergadura crecen en su presencia en la agenda pública principalmente porque, en su mayoría, han partido y se sostienen por el reclamo y el hacer ciudadano. Se desarrollan ven escalas específicas y locales y parecen mostrarnos la posibilidad de ir contra esa inercia global que responde en forma mezquina a la crisis mundial. Algunos ejemplos en Argentina podemos encontrarlos en temáticas como la de bosques, glaciares y Riachuelo. En el 2007 se aprobó la Ley de Protección de Bosques Nativos en el Congreso Nacional, en el 2008 la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación obligó al Estado nacional, de Provincia y Ciudad de Buenos Aires a sanear el Riachuelo, y en el 2010,  se sancionó la Ley de Protección del Ambiente Glaciar y Periglacial. En los tres casos existió una fuerte presencia de la sociedad civil para lograr que estas tres políticas se concretaran y continúa existiendo un marcado seguimiento y monitoreo para su adecuada implementación, con todas las dificultades que se presentan en el día a día.

Estos casos ponen en valor el rol del ejercicio ciudadano y las organizaciones en el sistema democrático, ya que en su mayoría no solo se ejerce el reclamo sino también el control institucional, ya que hacen despertar de un cierto letargo a las autoridades que no han brindado hasta el momento de la denuncia y la propuesta, las políticas especificas que se reclaman. Es entonces la sociedad civil la que ha impulsado diversos temas que van adquiriendo mayor entidad porque advierten respuesta en organismos de contralor como la Defensoría del Pueblo y la Auditoría General de la Nación, del Poder Judicial, el Legislativo y el Ejecutivo. No obstante ello, las organizaciones de la sociedad civil han sido objeto de cuestionamientos que actúan en detrimento de la libertad de expresión e intentan desvalorizar su acción en el sistema democrático. Por el contrario, creemos que el rol de la ciudadanía y la sociedad civil en tanto expresión del interés público y control institucional, constituyen una piedra angular en el sistema ya que mediante el acceso a la información, la participación ciudadana y el acceso a la justicia dinamizan el andamiaje institucional. Los indicadores de acceso a la información que se presentan en este y anteriores informes demuestran que cuanto mayor es el ejercicio y el reconocimiento normativo, la capacidad de respuesta de las instituciones es mayor. Ello se traduce en una mayor capacidad de control del Estado sobre los distintos sectores obligados a respetar e implementar la legislación ambiental, el Estado en sí mismo, como así también el sector privado y la ciudadanía en general.

Asimismo, en cuanto a la implementación de las políticas ambientales, el análisis comparativo de las encuestas realizadas a los autores del informe durante los últimos tres años señala que hay una clara tendencia en considerar que existe normativa suficiente para abordar las problemáticas ambientales analizadas en sus respectivos informes. Sin embargo, también hay concordancia muy clara en señalar que existe un fuerte déficit en el nivel de implementación de las políticas vigentes.

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