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20
Mar

Minería: La necesidad de revisar el modelo extractivo

La multiplicación de los conflictos socio-ambientales en la Argentina pone de manifiesto diversas contradicciones que anidan en el modelo de desarrollo que rige las relaciones entre economía sociedad y ambiente. Quizá, la principal contradicción, está relacionada con el déficit democrático del proceso de toma de decisiones que configura y reconfigura dicho modelo.Los conflictos en torno a la actividad minera no escapan a esta situación.

La preocupación por la salud, el estado del ambiente, los recursos naturales que lo componen –especialmente el agua–, el derecho a ser partícipes en la construcción del modelo de desarrollo de sus tierras, constituyen, entre otros, los principales aspectos de la demanda social.

Existe además un cuestionamiento constante a la capacidad y a la legitimidad del Estado como árbitro natural para dirimir conflictos socioambientales y garantizar el bien público frente a los intereses privados. De esta forma, no resulta extraño que cuando se plantean a los gobiernos provinciales posibilidades de grandes inversiones para proyectos extractivos –de hidrocarburos o mineros– éstos se vean tentados de tratar con la mayor laxitud posible las cuestiones ambientales, muchas veces soslayándolas de plano, a fin de imprimir una mayor agilidad a los trámites de otorgamiento de las licencias correspondientes. Al permanente déficit de capacidad y confianza social de los gobiernos en torno a la aplicación de la normativa ambiental a los proyectos de gran minería, se suma la posición desventajosa en que se encuentran hoy las comunidades locales respecto al Estado y el sector privado para participar en estos procesos de forma informada y eficaz, con lo que la posibilidad de que se generen riesgos ambientales y sociales, o se produzcan daños irreversibles, se torna evidente.

En adición, la falta de acceso a información confiable relativa a los impactos ambientales, sociales y económicos de la actividad, la carencia de verdaderos e idóneos controles públicos y el déficit de las instituciones gubernamentales en lo que hace a la canalización institucional de las preocupaciones ciudadanas, se suman a las inquietudes mencionadas.

A esta compleja situación se suman otros aspectos como la restricción de la libertad de expresión, la de publicar las ideas sin censura previa y aún la libertad de transitar libremente por sectores cercanos a los emprendimientos mineros.

El marco normativo vigente en Argentina no fomenta la plena incorporación de las externalidades y riesgos ambientales por parte de las empresas mineras, ni genera obligaciones firmes de utilizar las mejores tecnologías disponibles para evitarlos o, por lo menos, mitigar sus impactos actuales y futuros. Tampoco la legislación minera argentina responde a un consenso social. El marco legal-institucional que sustenta la actividad minera es producto del trabajo de un grupo limitado de “técnicos-expertos” hace más de veinte años y desde entonces el contexto global y el panorama nacional han cambiado profundamente.

En ese contexto, resulta clave entonces pensar estratégicamente en la necesidad de desarrollar políticas que en sintonía con la institucionalidad democrática permitan a la ciudadanía ejercer los diferentes derechos consagrados en la Constitución y así participar efectivamente de las decisiones que afectan su vida.

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