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Participación y EIA en América Latina

El procedimiento de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental (EIA) es una herramienta clave de gestión y política ambiental, con un reconocimiento legislativo de larga data en la mayoría de los países de la región. Sin embargo, enfrenta serios cuestionamientos por parte de comunidades locales y organizaciones ambientalistas sobre su capacidad efectiva de integrar consideraciones socio-ambientales en los procesos de toma de decisión sobre proyectos de desarrollo.

En razón de ello, y para conocer bajo qué condiciones los procedimientos de EIA logran integrar los aspectos ambientales en los procesos de decisión sobre proyectos, se llevó a cabo un análisis sobre la participación pública y el funcionamiento de los procedimientos de EIA en seis países de la región: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, México y Perú

¿Qué factores afectan la eficacia de estos procedimientos para atender las preocupaciones socio-ambientales y minimizar los impactos ambientales de los proyectos? ¿Cómo fortalecer la participación pública en los procedimientos de evaluación? Estas son algunas de las preguntas críticas que enfrenta la EIA como instrumento de la institucionalidad ambiental en el actual contexto latinoamericano y que este estudio se propuso abordar.

Del análisis comparado de 24 proyectos sometidos a procedimientos de EIA, en los 6 países de la región comprendidos por el estudio, el presente trabajo identifica tres condiciones claves para la incorporación de las demandas ambientales de los actores sociales a las decisiones sobre proyectos: 1) la existencia de una estructura de soporte que facilite y potencie la participación pública en el procedimiento de EIA; 2) el involucramiento de organismos del Estado que asumen una posición crítica sobre el proyecto; y  3) las acciones colectivas de incidencia que dan visibilidad al tema.

“El trabajo ilustra algunos avances en la materia, así como múltiples desafíos para alcanzar una efectiva y genuina participación ciudadana en América Latina. Hoy transitamos sobre la imperiosa necesidad de que todo proyecto de desarrollo debe contar con EIAs que incluyan necesariamente la voz de las comunidades locales” subraya Andrés Nápoli, Director Ejecutivo de FARN.

Este trabajo fue  promovido y liderado por la Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Ambiental (SPDA), asociación sin fines de lucro que promueve la efectiva aplicación de la legislación ambiental en el Perú, para lo cual contó con la participación de investigadores e instituciones de los distintos países comprendidos por el estudio, incluyendo FARN.

Esta publicación es parte de la serie de Derechos de Acceso en materia ambiental, iniciativa de la SPDA orientada a contribuir con el fortalecimiento de los derechos de acceso a la información, participación pública y acceso a la justicia en materia ambiental, reconocidos en el Principio 10 de la Declaración de Río sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo.

114 Responses

  1. EIA como los balances empresarios que se presentan, son un verso para cumplimentar compromisos fiscales, es cumplimentar un trámite, hacer lo que la ley indica, sin ánimo de beneficiar al ambiente, al usuario, inversor o al consumidor.
    La responsabilidad ciudadana de pretenderlo, no tiene cabida, la participación ciudadana en los casos en que hace falta, es casi imposible, no permitida ni deseada por quienes ostentan en cada caso el poder de tomar decisiones.
    Si no fuera así, bien se podría incluir en todo balance, el costo ambiental, el costo sanitario y el costo social, de toda acción empresaria que lo amerite.
    Así se acabaría con los mayores costos de las energías alternativas no contaminantes, con excepción de las hídricas, frente a los hidrocarburos, o las ventajas de usar el cianuro, el mercurio, el uranio por su riesgo como fuente de energía, o el glifosato. Lo mismo con las ondas electromagnéticas no ionizantes de transformadores, cables de alta tensión que atraviesan zonas urbanas, y antenas (FM y de telefonía celular), etc.
    La megaminería, el fracking, el monocultivo de la soja, y otras actividades no deseadas, se acabarían si se hiciera razonablemente, incluyendo el costo de curar las enfermedades como el cáncer que estas empresas provocan, entre cinco y diez años después de haber estado expuestos.
    La misma técnica debería aplicarse a las empresas vendedoras de cigarrlllos.

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