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¿Por qué las asociaciones público-privados ahora?

1. La apuesta a la infraestructura

El gobierno ha realizado distintos anuncios para impulsar lo que los propios funcionarios han denominado como “el plan de infraestructura más importante de la historia de la Argentina”. Destacando que las primeras prioridades se vinculan con la agenda social para alcanzar la meta de “pobreza cero”, se anuncian objetivos como el dotar al 100% de la población con acceso al agua potable y un 75% cloacas[1]. Así también se destacan aspectos vinculados a evitar los impactos de las inundaciones y sequ1ías y mejorar la competitividad con obras viales y ferroviarias.

En ese sentido, en diciembre de 2016 se presentaron las 100 prioridades de gobierno que buscaron focalizar las tareas de los distintos ministerios. Las mismas se agrupan en 8 grandes objetivos. El tercero de ellos, de acuerdo al orden en que son presentados, se denomina “Desarrollo de Infraestructura

Este objetivo contiene 11 prioridades vinculadas a distintos aspectos y tipos de infraestructura. Entre ellos: desarrollo de energías renovables, Plan Energético de Infraestructura, Plan de Agua y Saneamiento, Plan Nacional Vial, Infraestructura terrestre urbana de la zona del AMBA (Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires), Plan ferroviario de cargas, restauración de cuencas, Plan de riego, Prevención de inundaciones, tráfico aéreo.  Asimismo dentro de ellos se incluye la promoción del régimen de Asociaciones Público-Privadas.

La mayoría de los casos no se cuenta con información pública relevante para poder conocer más en detalle el tipo de obras y/o proyectos que buscan ejecutarse, así como tampoco cómo se pretende llegar al financiamiento necesario[2].

Por otra parte, tampoco se conocen  los fundamentos y criterios que determinan la relevancia de cada una de las obras, o si las mismas resultan prioritarias de acuerdo a un marco más amplio de entendimiento que integre una mirada de la propia ciudadanía respecto de las prioridades y necesidades vinculadas a infraestructura

2. Las APPs como instrumento prioritario

En ese contexto, se busca instrumentalizar los fondos a través de las PPP (Public Private Partnerships, denominación en inglés) o Asociación Público-Privadas (APPs).

En efecto, en la prioridad N° 37 el gobierno establece el fomento de inversiones de Participación Público Privado, fundamentando su decisión en que Argentina tiene un déficit de infraestructura tan grande que el Estado no puede hacerse cargo en soledad. Los proyectos de Asociación Público Privada, son un mecanismo que permite el ingreso del sector privado para poder avanzar más rápido y de manera más económica en obras necesarias para el desarrollo.

Las APPs han sido apoyadas y promovidas por las instituciones financieras internacionales (IFIs) tanto a través del otorgamiento de condiciones financieras  y beneficios como a través de apoyo técnico para la implementación de proyectos operando bajo esta modalidad (Cruz, 2016)

No se trata de mecanismos o modalidades nuevos, ya que han sido promovidas desde los noventa en el marco del Consenso de Washington. Sin embargo actualmente han recibido un nuevo impulso tras la crisis del 2008 (Cruz, 2016).

Esta promoción institucional tuvo se correlato en el aumento de montos invertidos en APPs en países en desarrollo. Se estima que entre el 2004 y el 2012 se habría pasado de 22.7 mil millones de dólares a 134,2 mil millones (Romero, 2015)

La promoción de las APPs se siguió llevando a cabo en la primera década del nuevo siglo pese a las advertencias sobre potenciales riesgos provenientes de fuentes como algunos representantes del propio Banco Mundial (Cruz, 2016) y críticas que apuntaban a la necesidad de evaluar adecuadamente si resultaba el mejor mecanismo para los fines buscados.

Así, entre los principales aspectos críticos se ha argumentado que resultan más gravosos como forma de financiamiento, involucran costos más elevados de construcción y transacción, mayores riesgos y menor eficiencia para el financiamiento público. Además existe falta de claridad sobre los beneficios concretos en términos de reducción de pobreza e información respecto a los impactos ambientales de proyectos operados con esta modalidad (Romero, 2015).

Así también y a raíz del fuerte énfasis en construcción de infraestructura se asocia a una visión de desarrollo vinculado a la modernización tecnológica y científica, propone intervención en territorios y comunidades generando conflictos socioambientales (Cruz, 2016).

En ese contexto corresponde preguntarse por el resurgimiento de interés por parte de Argentina, que si bien ya contaba con normativa al respecto (decreto 967/2005), en septiembre de 2016 sancionó una ley para regular este tipo de modalidades de contratación.

3. ¿Un nuevo régimen legal para Argentina? ¿Por qué ahora?

Los Contratos de Participación Público – Privadas, también llamadas “Asociaciones Público – Privadas”, se regían anteriormente por el Decreto N° 967/05. Este tipo de modalidades de contratación eran propuestos por miembros del sector privado, propiciando la realización de un emprendimiento que debía ineludiblemente financiarse a través de fondos provenientes de dicho sector, descargando al erario público del costo inicial de inversión. Era condición para la presentación de dichos proyectos que el presentante (el privado) acreditase la conveniencia del proyecto, así como el detalle del financiamiento con fondos privados, que luego el Estado abonará a lo largo del contrato, mediante el pago de un canon periódico.

Actualmente, a partir de la entrada en vigencia de la Ley N° 27.238, el aludido régimen ha sido modificado sustancialmente, siendo la autoridad contratante la que debe elaborar el proyecto a ser ejecutado en colaboración con el sector privado. En este nuevo modelo, específica y expresamente se busca compartir los riesgos de la inversión, tal como lo estipula el artículo 9° inciso b) de la precitada norma: [los contratos de participación público-privada deberán contener las siguientes previsiones] El equitativo y eficiente reparto de aportes y riesgos entre las partes del contrato, contemplando al efecto las mejores condiciones para prevenirlos, asumirlos o mitigarlos, de modo tal de minimizar el costo del proyecto y facilitar las condiciones de su financiamiento, incluyendo, entre otras, las consecuencias derivadas del hecho del príncipe, caso fortuito, fuerza mayor, alea económica extraordinaria del contrato y la extinción anticipada del contrato.

Ahora bien, es cierto que el nuevo modelo provee a captar mayor inversión, dado que resulta más atractivo para el sector privado, quien comparte los riesgos de la inversión con el Estado. La gran pregunta que cabe formularse es a qué costo.

El régimen nuevo detalladamente establece cada paso del procedimiento para llevar a cabo un proyecto en conjunto con el sector privado entre los que se destacan: elaboración del proyecto y dictamen sobre su procedencia y conveniencia, ejecución mediante licitación o concurso público, numerosas intervenciones de diversas áreas de gobierno, recaudos socio-ambientales, rendiciones acerca de la conveniencia inicial, rendiciones acerca de la efectiva implementación y evolución del proyecto, detalle del impacto presupuestario para el erario público en forma plurianual.

Asimismo, se ha creado –aunque aún parece no estar en funcionamiento- un organismo específicamente abocado al análisis de la procedencia y ejecución de este tipo de proyectos: la Unidad de Participación Público Privada. Dicho órgano tendrá a su cargo la evaluación inicial de los proyectos, la fiscalización de su licitación y ejecución, entre otras.

Estas son las grandes novedades introducidas por el nuevo régimen, con un elevado nivel de detalle en comparación con el anterior, y con una notoria y aparente voluntad de llevar a cabo numerosos proyectos que ya forman parte del ideario actual del Poder Ejecutivo. Así se espera que con ayuda de la inversión y mano de obra privada, disminuya el riesgo y el costo inicial del erario público colocando en cabeza del privado la ejecución posterior, contemplando como opción la creación de sociedades de “propósito específico” (las que deberán ser constituidas bajo la forma de fideicomiso en los términos del Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación).

No obstante los que dice el nuevo texto de la ley, existen dudas sobre cómo operará este régimen en la práctica así como fundadas preocupaciones sobre la protección de los intereses públicos, máxime teniendo en cuenta la historia reciente de nuestro país en lo que respecta a la intromisión del sector privado en el interés público. En ese sentido, la década de los noventa ha sido significativa en cuanto a sus consecuencias vinculadas a la llamada  “privatización” de los servicios públicos, que condujeron a la contracción de la deuda pública que condujo al default, llevando a la República Argentina a una de las peores- sino la peor- crisis económica, con el punto máximo en el año 2001.

Preguntas todavía sin respuestas

Conforme a lo expuesto en el punto antecedente, surgen varias preguntas acerca de la efectiva implementación de este régimen, en particular, vinculadas a la transparencia, rendición de cuentas e impactos ambientales de los proyectos que serán ejecutados bajo esta modalidad.

Primeramente, se requiere saber cuáles son los proyectos que el Estado propone para implementar mediante asociaciones público-privado, si se tratará de obras que luego serán explotadas por el estado, o servicios públicos que incluyan la construcción de infraestructura con explotación por parte del privado, o ambos casos por igual. Asimismo, es necesario conocer qué proyectos se llevaron a cabo o se encuentran en vías de ejecución bajo el régimen anterior, y cuál ha sido el balance económico-financiero y los impactos ambientales de dichos proyectos, así como quiénes fueron los proponentes y por qué se consideraron apropiadas sus propuestas.

Específicamente en relación a la materia ambiental, qué intervención le ha cabido a los organismos de aplicación, , y qué alcances específicos han tenido dichas intervenciones. En particular teniendo en cuenta la gran envergadura y la inter-jurisdiccionalidad involucrada en gran parte de las obras que se proponen (represas hidroeléctricas, ferrocarriles, rutas).

Asimismo, interesa conocer cómo serán llevados cabo no sólo los procesos la definición de los proyectos a integrar a este régimen, los antecedentes y calificación de los actores privados para intervenir en tales emprendimientos, sino también los procesos de licitación, adjudicación y ejecución de obras, con atención particular al sistema de rendición de cuentas y control. Preocupa cómo se llevará a cabo la contabilidad financiera y se evitará la “privatización de beneficios y sociabilización de riesgos”.

A modo de cierre

En ese sentido, la circunstancia de que Argentina busque reformular y dar un nuevo impulso a un instituto viejo, que en algunos países de la región ha suscitado distintos problemas, algunos de ellos vinculados a escándalos de corrupción, abre una serie de fundados interrogantes en nuestro país.

Existen distintas preguntas,  en particular dudas sobre la transparencia y el impacto que podrá tener este tipo de iniciativas en los recursos públicos y en el ambiente, que resulta necesario despejar  antes de avanzar con este tipo de iniciativas.

En ese esfuerzo, FARN realizó sendos pedidos de información a distintas autoridades competentes para conocer el funcionamiento de este régimen.

NOTAS

[1] Ver por ejemplo: http://www.rielfm.com.ar/entre-rios/frigerio-las-prioridades-son-las-inversiones-en-infraestructura_51169.htm

[2] Solo en algunos casos, se puede acceder a algo de información en los sitios web de los organismos pertinentes, y se puede conocer algunos aspectos vinculados a cómo podrán cumplirse los objetivos y prioridades propuestas.

 

REFERENCIAS

Cruz, David (2016). Asociaciones Público-Privadas desde la Banca Multilateral; Implementación en América Latina; Parte I, Ambiente y Sociedad, Bogotá, Colombia

Romero, M. J. (2015). What Lies Beneath? A Critical Assessment of PPPs and their Impact on Sustainable Development. European Netwotk on Debt and Development (Eurodad). Recuperado de: http://www.eurodad.org/ whatliesbeneath.

Pedidos de informe:

 

 

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