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06
Mar

América Latina y el Caribe adoptan un acuerdo histórico vinculante para la protección de los derechos ambientales

Después de más de 6 años de intensas reuniones y negociaciones, 24 países de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) han adoptado en San José de Costa Rica el “Acuerdo de Escazú”, también conocido como Acuerdo por el Principio 10.

Es uno de los acuerdos de derechos humanos ambientales más importantes de los últimos veinte años.

Este instrumento de carácter multilateral busca garantizar de manera efectiva los derechos de todos los habitantes para acceder a la información, garantizar la posibilidad de que la población deba ser consultada y pueda participar en la construcción de una decisión que pueda afectar su calidad de vida o el derecho a gozar de un ambiente sano, y así también tener mecanismos directos para acceder a la justicia en asuntos ambientales.

El Acuerdo es, además, el primero que adoptan en materia ambiental un conjunto de países de América Latina y el Caribe, y fue construido y negociado con la directa y significativa participación de representantes de organizaciones de la sociedad civil de los diversos países de la región (FARN asistió como uno de los representantes de la sociedad civil), quienes formaron parte -al igual que los representantes de los Estados- en la Mesa de Negociaciones.

El Acuerdo que es de carácter vinculante, vale decir, de aplicación obligatoria para aquellos países que finalmente lo ratifiquen, incluye muchas disposiciones tendientes a garantizar los derechos a acceder a la información, participación y justicia en temas ambientales antes mencionados, como así también el reconocimiento a principios fundamentales para el derecho ambiental, como son los Principios “Precautorio” y de “Prevención”, y el de “No Regresión”, que impide a los países derogar las garantías y derechos ya reconocidos por el mismo.

De igual forma, contiene una garantía expresa de protección para los defensores ambientales, que son aquellas personas que trabajan en la protección de los derechos humanos y el ambiente. La misma constituye la primera en ser incluida en un Tratado internacional de carácter vinculante (con disposiciones obligatorias para los Estados) y surge en respuesta a la crítica situación por la que atraviesan los defensores en América Latina y el Caribe. En tal sentido, el informe Global Witness 2017(*) señaló que 200 defensores del medio ambiente y la tierra fueron asesinados a lo largo de todo el año 2016 en 24 países del mundo.

Este acuerdo será un instrumento que permitirá hacer evolucionar la legislación de aquellos países de la región que hoy no cuentan con herramientas eficaces para la defensa del ambiente, y que muchas veces se ven afectados por grandes obras de infraestructura, proyectos de explotación y extracción de recursos naturales, o por las consecuencias de los procesos de contaminación.

De igual forma, los contenidos de este acuerdo brindarán herramientas para que aquellos países que cuentan con un mayor desarrollo legislativo, como es el caso de Argentina, puedan enfocarse en mejorar la aplicación de sus normas y el cumplimiento de las previsiones que le permiten a la población acceder a información, participar en procesos como los de Evaluación del Impacto Ambiental y también controlar el cumplimiento de las decisiones que puedan adoptarse en materia ambiental teniendo la posibilidad de acceder a la justicia.

El Acuerdo fue adoptado sin la posibilidad de que aquellos países que decidan ratificarlo puedan establecer reservas a una parte de su texto, lo que brinda un elevado nivel de robustez a las disposiciones contenidas en el mismo.
Además se establecerán instancias como la Conferencia de la Partes y un Comité destinado a monitorear y dar seguimiento al cumplimiento por parte de los países de las disposiciones y garantías contenidas en el texto.

Asimismo se prevé que el Acuerdo pueda entrar en vigencia a partir de que 11 países de los 33 que integran la región de América Latina y el Caribe lo hayan ratificado, lo cual los Estados podrán iniciar a partir del 27 de septiembre de 2018, cuando en la sede de la ONU (Nueva York) quede abierto el texto para su firma.

El Acuerdo del P10 es histórico en materia de consolidación de la democracia ambiental. Es el primero que establece cláusulas de protección para defensores ambientales, garantizando efectivamente la protección del ambiente y la calidad de vida de las personas. Es muy importante que Argentina lo ratifique cuanto antes, y así transformarse en líder de este proceso”, afirmó Andrés Napoli, Director Ejecutivo de FARN.

(*) Ver: https://www.globalwitness.org/en/campaigns/environmental-activists/defender-la-tierra/

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