Pulso Ambiental Nº1: Fracking en Argentina

En este primer número analizamos el Fracking en nuestro país. Transcribimos debajo la editorial, podés dejar tu opinión al final de la página.

FRACKING: ¿TROPEZAR DOS VECES CON LA MISMA PIEDRA?

La Argentina padece una fuerte crisis en materia energética caracterizada, entre otros aspectos, por una importante disminución en la producción de petróleo y gas, una caída pronunciada de las reservas comprobadas de hidrocarburos y una demanda creciente de importación de estos productos, que ya alcanza los 12.000 millones de dólares anuales.

En este contexto, el Departamento de Energía de Estados Unidos dio a conocer un informe, que sitúa a la Argentina como la segunda potencia mundial en materia de recursos de “shale gas” y “shale oil”.

Si bien todavía no se conoce con certeza qué cantidad de estos recursos podrán convertirse en reservas comprobadas, ni se han determinado los costos y los riesgos que demandará dicha explotación, lo cierto es que tal anuncio obró como un detonante que impulsó la adopción de decisiones que condicionarán el desarrollo del sector en la próximas décadas. En tal sentido, se destaca la firma de un acuerdo, de carácter secreto, entre YPF y Chevron para el desarrollo de las tareas de exploración y futura explotación, de una parte del Yacimiento de Vaca Muerta en la Provincia de Neuquén, ratificado mediante el Decreto Nº 929/2013, hoy cuestionado por la justicia.

De igual forma, el proceso de exploración del yacimiento neuquino avanza, sin que hasta el momento se hayan evaluado de manera específica los impactos ambientales que producirá la explotación mediante el sistema de fracking. Tampoco se han dado a conocer documentos oficiales que permitan despejar los interrogantes que genera este tipo de explotación. En tal sentido, la información difundida por fuentes oficiales, tiende a relativizar de tal manera los posibles impactos que dificultan su credibilidad. Otro aspecto preocupante es la ausencia de un marco regulatorio ambiental adecuado para la explotación de este tipo de hidrocarburos. Sólo la provincia de Neuquén ha sancionado un decreto tendiente a regular las actividades realizadas bajo el sistema de fractura hidráulica. Por su parte, el actual régimen vigente en materia de hidrocarburos a nivel nacional, basado en la Ley N° 17.319, (con sus modificatorias), carece de las herramientas normativas necesarias que permitan reglar el funcionamiento de una técnica tan compleja y novedosa como el fracking.

Tampoco se sabe de qué manera se llevarán a cabo las tareas de control ambiental de los yacimientos, cuestión que parece sumamente compleja como para dejarla únicamente en manos de las autoridades provinciales, tal como ha sucedido en el caso de las explotaciones mineras en las últimas décadas.

Asimismo, no se han desarrollado instancias que aseguren el acceso a la información, la participación y la consulta de todas aquellas personas que puedan resultar afectadas por el impacto que produzcan las actividades de explotación de hidrocarburos que se proyectan realizar. En especial las que se desarrollen en territorios donde habitan pueblos y comunidades originarias, que deberá contar con el consentimiento previo, libre e informado, y cumpliendo con los requisitos que dispone el Convenio 169 de la OIT.

Por último, no se ha desarrollado un debate informado que permita conocer si la decisión de apostar nuevamente al desarrollo de los combustibles fósiles resulta pertinente. Existen muchas voces que señalan que la promoción de los hidrocarburos no convencionales, va a contramano de la necesidad mundial de disminuir las emisiones de gases de efectos invernadero, que afectan el cambio climático. La cuestión climática requiere avanzar hacia una matriz energética más limpia, basada en energías renovables e inagotables, que abundan en todo el territorio argentino pero que, hasta ahora, no han recibido el debido respaldo para desarrollarse, contrariamente a lo que ha sucedido con los combustibles fósiles.

La política de hechos consumado que se ha iniciado en materia de hidrocarburos no convencionales nos recuerda a lo sucedido en la década del 90, donde la crisis del sector minero promovió la sanción de normas que impulsaron el desarrollo de proyectos megamineros, cuyos impactos sociales y ambientales se produjeron 20 años después.

La historia nos enseña; está en nosotros no tropezar dos veces con la misma piedra.

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