Revista Pulso Ambiental Nº2: ¿Estamos preparados?

Los efectos del cambio climático en nuestro planeta son cada vez más visibles y se agota el tiempo para un acuerdo mundial que limite las emisiones. En Argentina ya sufrimos las consecuencias, pero el tema se encuentra ausente en la dirigencia política y la opinión pública nacional.

¿POR QUÉ EL CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO DEBERÍA SER UN TEMA DE LA AGENDA PÚBLICA EN ARGENTINA?

Por Daniel Ryan, Director de Investigación de FARN

Razonablemente, uno se puede preguntar por qué nuestro país debería tomar acciones e invertir recursos para enfrentar el cambio climático. En última instancia, el cambio climático es un problema global; cualquier esfuerzo que haga nuestro país en reducir emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) no va modificar la trayectoria o la gravedad del problema si los países emisores más importantes (fundamentalmente Estados Unidos y China), no toman acciones sustantivas para reducir sus emisiones. Además –se podría agregar- hay un tema de equidad: ¿por qué Argentina va asumir responsabilidades y costos en mitigar emisiones cuando, por ejemplo, los países desarrollados se han beneficiado por la emisión “gratuita” de GEI durante décadas?

Este argumento –sin duda simplificado- expresa la mirada que buena parte de la dirigencia política argentina, y posiblemente de la opinión pública, tiene sobre la relevancia de la problemática climática. Claramente, esta mirada ayuda a entender el carácter más bien reactivo que tiene la política pública en nuestro país, frente a los desafíos del cambio climático y el lugar marginal que ocupa este tema en la agenda política argentina.

Se puede responder de distintas maneras a este argumento. En esta breve editorial queremos destacar sólo dos razones que, en forma simple y concreta, demuestran la necesidad y conveniencia de que Argentina asuma un rol proactivo frente a la problemática del cambio climático en su política doméstica.

En primer lugar, hay numerosas acciones y políticas que puede promover el Estado argentino tendientes a reducir emisiones -un beneficio global- pero que a la vez generan beneficios económicos, sociales y/o ambientales locales que justifican, por sí mismas, avanzar en su desarrollo e implementación. Por ejemplo, nuestro país tiene un enorme potencial de crecimiento en el área de la energía solar y eólica. Desarrollar este potencial requiere de políticas públicas que generen condiciones favorables, de forma tal de poder alcanzar la meta fijada por la ley 26.190 para que en el 2016, el 8% del consumo de energía eléctrica provenga de fuentes renovables, con la aspiración de llegar al 20% en el 2020. Esto representaría un aporte al objetivo global de reducir emisiones, a la vez que contribuiría de manera crítica a las necesidades de seguridad energética de nuestro país.

En segundo lugar, el fenómeno del cambio climático ya está ocurriendo y los eventos climáticos posiblemente afecten en forma más recurrente e intensa a nuestro país, causando perjuicios y daños a su población y a su economía. El Quinto Reporte del IPCC sobre Impactos, Adaptación y Vulnerabilidad, publicado en abril del 2014 incluye varias referencias sobre Argentina. Este Informe del IPCC, elaborado por más de 300 científicos líderes de todo el mundo, advierte –por ejemplo- acerca de los aumentos en las inundaciones en la provincia de Buenos Aires y el área metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Asimismo, da cuenta de los serios retrocesos que sufren los glaciares y los campos de hielo en los Andes Argentinos, afectando el abastecimiento de ríos y la disponibilidad de agua dulce en zonas áridas altamente dependientes de estos cursos de agua. Estos son algunos de los posibles impactos identificados por la comunidad científica, pero que ponen de relieve la necesidad imperiosa de generar e implementar políticas públicas que fortalezcan la capacidad de resilencia y adaptación de nuestro país. En este contexto, las dilaciones en las negociaciones internacionales sobre un acuerdo global para reducir emisiones, no eximen de responsabilidad a los decisores públicos de nuestro país, -ya sea a nivel nacional, provincial o municipal-, por la falta de políticas y medidas necesarias para preparar y proteger nuestras comunidades de los impactos del cambio climático.

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160 Responses

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